Northern Quebec (Nord-du-Québec)
This administrative region is the largest of all the seventeen regions of Québec. With 839,000 squarekilometres (323,940 sq mi), with many lakes and rivers, it covers much of the Labrador Peninsula and about 55% of the total land surface area of the province. Curiously enough, its land area covers an area larger than the U.S. State of Texas. The region has a population of about 40 thousand.
Northern Quebec is bordered by Hudson Bay and James Bay in the West, Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay in the North, Labrador in the North-East and the regions of Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Mauricie, Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean and Côte-Nord in the South and South-East.
Before 1912, the most northernly part of this region was known as the Ungava District of the Northwest Territories. Later, until 1987, it was referred to as Nouveau-Québec (New Quebec).
This region is part of the territory covered by the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement of 1975; other regions covered in part by this Agreement include the Côte-Nord, Mauricie and Abitibi-Témiscamingue administrative regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region is sub-divided in two smaller territories, the Jamésie region south of the 55th parallel and the Nunavik region in the north. The Jamésie region has a land area of 303,473.27 km² (117,171.68 sq mi). Its largest community is the city of Chibougamau.
The Nunavik region has a land area of 443,684.71 km² (171,307.62 sq mi). Its largest community is the village of Kuujjuaq.
The Jamésie region, which extends from the eastern shore of James Bay to the Otish Mountains of the Laurentian Plateau, is mainly boreal forest. Nunavik has some boreal forest in its southern portion but is mainly tundra which covers the entire Ungava Peninsula.
The inhabitants of Nord-du-Québec include about 15,000 Cree First Nation people, mostly living in the Jamésie region. The Cree Regional Authority, or the Grand Council of the Crees (Eeyou Istchee), represents nine Cree villages of northern Quebec.
About 10,000 Inuit inhabit the region, most of whom live in coastal Northern villages in Nunavik Territory. The remaining population, concentrated mostly in the south, are of European descent. The Kativik Regional Government offers local services to all residents of the villages of the Nunavik region, both Inuit and non-Inuit, with the exception of the Cree village of Whapmagoostui whose residents participate in the Cree Regional Authority.
The largest of the municipalities is Baie-James, almost entirely covering the Jamésie Territory. The principal towns and villages of Nord-du-Québec are Chibougamau (largest town in this region), Chisasibi, Mistissini and Kuujjuaq.
There is a limited network of roads in the region and most were constructed as part of the James Bay Project. The main road of the region is the Route de la Baie James, an extension of Route 109 from Matagammi to Radisson. The 407 km long gravel Route du Nord connects the Route de la Baie James to Route 167 near Chibougamau. The 665 km gravel Route Transtaïga branches off the Route de la Baie James to Caniapiscau, the northernmost connecting road in eastern North America.
The few provincial routes are concentrated in the far south of the region, including Route 109 to Matagami, Route 113, which ends near Chibougamau, and Route 167 to Mistissini.
However, there are no roads to Nunavik from the south. Access is limited to air travel, sea travel to coastal areas, or hiking great distances. There are isolated roads in and around villages, as well as an isolated road running from the Raglan Mines to Deception Bay, connecting to Salluit.
Cities of the Northern Quebec: Chapais, Chibougamau, Lebel-sur-Quévillon, Matagami. Independent Municipality: Baie-James. Indian Reserve : Lac-John, Quebec. Cree Villages: Chisasibi, Eastmain, Mistissini, Nemaska, Waskaganish, Waswanipi, Wemindji, Whapmagoostui. Cree Reserved Territories: Chisasibi Reserved Territory, Eastmain Reserved Territory, Mistissini Reserved Territory, Nemaska Reserved Territory, Waskaganish Reserved Territory, Waswanipi Reserved Territory, Wemindji Reserved Territory, Whapmagoostui Reserved Territory. Major communities: Chapais, Chibougamau, Chisasibi, Inukjuak, Kuujjuaq, Lebel-sur-Quévillon, Matagami, Mistissini, Puvirnituq, Roggan River, Salluit, Waskaganish, Waswanipi, Wemindji.